The operation was carried out by Kalinin (Gen. For even more details, read what USCB Department of Physics says on the issue. Konev) and West (Gen. Georgi ) fronts January 8-April 20, 1942 to complete the destruction of Army Group "Center" (Field Marshal hh Kluge). In late 1941 in a major Soviet offensive outside Moscow, German troops suffered their first serious defeat. By January of 1942 located in the central sector of the German fighting ability is almost lost, which gave Soviet commanders an opportunity to chart a plan of the final destruction of Army Group "Center". Unusually severe frosts have created for the German army is extremely harsh conditions: Gun grease froze, causing frequent denials of weapons, the narrow tracks of tanks per night and froze me back to earth.
To start the engine of any military equipment, had to kindle a fire under the floor. Frostbite among soldiers became widespread and common phenomenon. In these circumstances, the Soviet military leadership and Stalin personally came to the conclusion about the necessity of the final defeat of the enemy, who was in the so-called Vyazma ledge. The very configuration of the protrusion above the that hangs troops four Soviet fronts, prompted the decision. It was decided without operational pause to continue to move forward to complete the defeat of the Nazi Army Group "Center". Offensive planned quickly and with little bloodshed. But it was one of the bloodiest in the history of World War ii and lasted for 14 months. Later, when the operation has already begun, it became clear that the enemy was by no means completely demoralized, as expected.