Nephrolithiasis etiology. Causes of kidney concretions is not quite clear. More often develops in nephrolithiasis areas where the water is lime (hard), but the climate is dry and hot. Read additional details here: Levi’s. The emergence of this disease has also been associated with urinary tract infection and hypovitaminosis (often with hypovitaminosis A). Pathogenesis.

Formation of kidney stones favor the following conditions: high concentration of calcium in the urine, hyperparathyroidism, lack of protective barriers vykristallizatsii components of urine, and the presence of elevated amounts of epithelial cells, leukocytes, protein – organic nuclei, around which begins vykristallizatsiya. Kidney stones are formed of urate, oxalate and phosphate. In size they are divided into: large – coralloid, Cast – how fingerprints pelvis and cups, medium sized and small (sand, mikrolitiaz). The clinical picture. Nephrolithiasis can occur without symptoms at all, when the stones are located in the renal calyx or cover the entire pelvis. Renal colic occur during the passage of stone through the ureter. Usually during the enhanced motility, which aims to bring a kidney stone, ureteral mucosa exposed to injury. It characterized by the presence of pain (a feeling of tension), which can be very intense.

The pain is localized in the – the lumbar region, spread along the ureter to the genitals. There is hematuria, and much less can come and reflex anuria. In case of delay ureterolith education and local edema develops its walls hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Nephrolithiasis creates favorable conditions for the emergence of inflammation of the urinary tract. Treatment. There are opportunities for medical dissolution of stones in the urinary tract. In the formation of urate stones treatment is carried out in order to increase urine pH to 6.5, with calcium oxalate stones – used citrate, magnesium salts and vitamin B6, while the phosphate rocks first – the urine is acidified. Recommend appropriate medications urikoliticheskie: Uralyt, Soluran etc. In renal colic hold water shock (excessive fluid administration of up to 3 liters), kidney